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A couple has just had children. Almost immediately after, Mom’s life returns to normal. Dad cares for the children. Does this grab your attention? In human society, issues of who does what in parenting are alive and well. What if the parents aren’t human? Shorebirds have diverse parenting systems that range from both parents cooperating to one or the other sex taking full responsibility. Thus, for many species in the shorebird world, males caring for the chicks has long been the norm. For example, in most pair-forming sandpipers (socially monogamous Scolopacidae), both parents help when the chicks are very young and then one parent – usually the female – leaves. In Red Knots Calidris canutus, Purple Sandpipers C. maritima and Great Knots C. tenuirostris the female leaves as soon as the eggs hatch. However, a few Red Knot females may be bending the gender roles in a species that generally takes these roles to the extreme. In this issue of Wader Study, Tomkovich and colleagues describe rare cases of female knots attending broods (staying with the kids) for the first time1. Whenever rare or surprising things are found, scientists question a few things: (1) Are the methods strong enough to ensure the rare find is genuine? (2) If so, why haven’t we seen this before? (3) Why is this rare thing happening? The first question then, is how did Tomkovich and colleagues find these parenting-females in a species where males and females look alike and nests are notoriously hard to find because the birds breed over vast swaths of tundra? First, the researchers stuck to well-studied sites. They studied breeding C. c. rogersi knots near Meinypilgyno Village, Chukotka in Far-Eastern Russia and C. c. roselaari knots near Nome, Seward Peninsula in Alaska. [caption id="attachment_10754" align="alignnone" width="700"] Knot on nest at the study site near Nome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA (photo:James Johnson).[/caption] The Chukotka site is 10 km2 of coastal dry-plain tundra and the Alaska site comprises 5 smaller locations over 18 km2 of montane dwarf shrub tundra. [caption id="attachment_10753" align="alignnone" width="700"] Knot on nest at the study site near Meinypilgyno Village, Chukotka, Russia (photo: Pavel Tomkovich).[/caption] To find birds, nests and young, the researchers conducted daily surveys during pre-nesting, occasionally during incubation, and every one to three days during brood-rearing. Two to five observers walked in parallel about 100 m apart to cover as large an area as possible. This systematic searching helped the researchers find the birds (and their broods), but how did they know which bird was which and – more importantly for this study – whether the one taking care of the brood was male or female? First, they had to mark the birds. This is one reason to use a well-studied site, where birds are already marked as a matter of course for other studies. The knots were individually marked with a numbered metal ring. In most cases, the birds also had an engraved leg flag or a unique combination of a flag and colour bands so that researchers could recognize them at a distance. To tell who was male and female, the researchers working in Alaska took blood samples when banding the birds and determined the sex using molecular techniques. The researchers working in Chukotka also used molecular sexing techniques in some cases, but they also noting mating behavior, measured cloaca sizes, and even watched birds lay eggs (if it lays an egg it’s a female). The hard work paid off and from 2009 to 2017 the researchers found a total of 62 broods in Chukotka, and 127 broods in Alaska. All broods were attended by a single parent. In four cases, the bird attending the brood was female: one female in Chukotka and two females in Alaska (one who attended broods in two successive years). Importantly, for all cases, molecular sexing from blood samples was used to confirm the sex of the bird. This brings us to the next question: Why haven’t we seen this before? This is the first report of such behavior in Red Knots. Are gender roles changing for these birds? In humans, parenting comes in many varieties: single parents, co-parents living apart, co-parents living together, same-sex parents, gender fluid parents. The variety does seem like a modern thing, though people have likely been coming up with interesting and successful ways to raise kids for a long time. Now though, we are more interested in studying it. As a result, we might be seeing, acknowledging and accepting more variety. Might this be true for birds too? In the paper, the authors list several earlier studies that report no female parenting in Red Knots. However, they note that the incidence of females caring for broods in their own study was very low (only ~2%) and that such rare females might always have been there, undetected. Why? Because males and females look the same, because observing techniques like nest cameras are new, and because molecular sexing is new. Perhaps more and better study is allowing us to see more variety. To really know whether knot behavior is changing, the researchers will have to keep watching. Then they’ll be able to see if this low level of female care stays the same or if it is increasing over time. Finally, we ask why this rare behavior is happening. This study can’t tell us the answer, but the authors discuss several possibilities. The most obvious is that the male deserted the brood or died, forcing the female to stay and raise the kids. This may have been the case for the Chukotka female. The authors report that from 2012–2015, she always paired with the same male and he stayed with the kids. But the year she was found with the chicks, he was not seen at all. Rare cases of females attending broods have also been found in Purple Sandpipers and a removal study on this species has shown that if the male is experimentally removed just before hatching, most female Purple Sandpipers assumed brood care2. So perhaps the females took care of the kids because they had to. Another possibility is that broods were split between the parents shortly after hatching and the male was attending the other chicks elsewhere. But the authors note that this seems unlikely. In the case of the female in Chukotka, she was taking care of a single chick and there were no other broods of the same age found in the area. In Alaska, in one case a female was attending four chicks, not a reduced brood. Whatever their reason for parenting, these rare single moms parented much the same as the common single dads. They were “good” parents: leading chicks to foraging areas, brooding chicks, and displaying strong anti-predatory responses if researchers (or other threats) came too near. Similar findings, that females can parent just as well as males, have also been found in Purple Sandpipers2. In knots, parenting didn’t seem to harm female survival either. All three females attending broods in Alaska and Chukotka were observed the following breeding season. This leads to the question of why female knots don’t parent more often. The authors themselves wonder “why female chick attendance is rare in Red Knots, and other socially monogamous sandpiper species, while they apparently are capable of successfully raising chicks”. Many wonder the same about humans, but the other way around. Single mothers far outnumber single fathers, even in places single fathers are on the rise3. Yet, dads are quite successful at raising children (some male mammals can even lactate4). Of course, there is also the larger question of why such a wide variety of parenting strategies exists at all5. We still don’t know – for shorebirds or humans – so we might as well enjoy the variety.
  1. Tomkovich, P.S., J. A. Johnson, E. Y. Loktionov & L. H. DeCicco. 2018. Brood attendance by female Red Knots. Wader Study 125(1): xx-xx.
  2. Pierce, E.P., L.W. Oring, E. Røska & J.T. Lijfeld. 2010. Why don’t purple sandpipers perform brood care? A removal experiment. Behavioral Ecology 21: 275–283.
  3. Webb, A. 2017. Single parents worldwide: Statistics and trends. Blog post in Spaced Out Scientist 18 Jul 2017 at https://spacedoutscientist.com/2017/07/18/single-parents-worldwide-statistics-and-trends/ with links to original OCED and census data.
  4. Swaminathanm N. 2007. Strange but True: Males Can Lactate. Posted in Scientific American 6 Sep 2007 at https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/strange-but-true-males-can-lactate/.
  5. Székely, T., G. H. Thomas, I. C. Cuthill. 2006. Sexual conflict, ecology, and breeding systems in shorebirds. BioScience 56: 801-808.
PDF is available for download here: http://www.waderstudygroup.org/article/10744
Spotlight: Shorebirds bending gender roles

A couple has just had children. Almost immediately after, Mom’s life returns to normal. Dad cares for the children. Does this grab your attention? In human society, issues of who does what in parenting are alive and well. What if the parents aren’t human? Shorebirds have diverse parenting systems that range from both parents cooperating to one or the other sex taking full responsibility. Thus, for many species in the shorebird world, males caring for the chicks has long been the norm. For

After becoming the 170th Contracting Party to the Convention on Wetlands, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea became the 36th Partner of the East Asian – Australasian Flyway Partnership on 11 April 2018 and has nominated the Kumya Wetland Reserve and Mundok Migratory Bird Reserve as their first two EAAF Network Sites. In recent years, the DPR Korea has been increasingly active in collaborating with international organizations to identify priority areas for the conservation of migratory waterbirds through survey and monitoring projects along their coastal and inland wetlands. The country has also initiated an inventory of their countries’ wetlands which will yield important information on the biodiversity of those areas and the services that they provide for people. Read the full announcement on EAAF website there :  http://eaaflyway.net Featured image: Rason Migratory Bird Reserve in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, ©RAMSAR.  
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea became the 36th Partner of the East Asian – Australasian Flyway Partnership

After becoming the 170th Contracting Party to the Convention on Wetlands, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea became the 36th Partner of the East Asian – Australasian Flyway Partnership on 11 April 2018 and has nominated the Kumya Wetland Reserve and Mundok Migratory Bird Reserve as their first two EAAF Network Sites. In recent years, the DPR Korea has been increasingly active in collaborating with international organizations to identify priority areas for the conservation of migratory

The 17th Spoon-billed Sandpiper Task Force (SBS TF) News Bulletin is now available here. To read previous news bulletins and find out more about Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Task Force Documents, Publications and Related Materials), visit the SBS TF page.     Fetaured image: Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Calidris pygmaea.®JJ Harrison, Pak Thale, Petchaburi, Thailand, January 2013.
Spoon-billed Sandpiper Task Force: News Bulletin No.18, April 2018

The 17th Spoon-billed Sandpiper Task Force (SBS TF) News Bulletin is now available here. To read previous news bulletins and find out more about Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Task Force Documents, Publications and Related Materials), visit the SBS TF page.     Fetaured image: Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Calidris pygmaea.®JJ Harrison, Pak Thale, Petchaburi, Thailand, January 2013.

The Woodcock and Snipe Specialist Group has just released its Newsletter n°43. The issue of this newsletter Compiled and edited by David Gonçalves (CIBIO/InBIO, University of Porto) were full of information. It contains among others a compilation of the last migration & ringing reports of local Woodcock & Snipe groups and a current list of recent Woodcock and Snipe publications. Very informative!,  I'll leave you to discover those on your own:    
Woodcock and Snipe Specialist Group | Newsletter 2017 n°43

The Woodcock and Snipe Specialist Group has just released its Newsletter n°43. The issue of this newsletter Compiled and edited by David Gonçalves (CIBIO/InBIO, University of Porto) were full of information. It contains among others a compilation of the last migration & ringing reports of local Woodcock & Snipe groups and a current list of recent Woodcock and Snipe publications. Very informative!,  I'll leave you to discover those on your own:    

The Wader Study Group joined BirdLife International to support the celebration of the World Curlew Day the 21st April! By Mary Colwell. "This time last year a ground-breaking assessment of the threats facing the Numeniini group was published that collated the views of over 100 wader experts from around the world made shocking reading. . It concluded that the main threat internationally is the loss and destruction of coastal estuaries and wetlands, which are under increasing pressure from development and disturbance, particularly in Asia. The Numeniini group are 13 wader species including upland sandpiper, four godwit and eight curlew species. It is shocking that over half of these species are of global conservation concern which makes this family one of the most threatened in the world. April 21 was chosen to be World Curlew Day because of a delightful, traditional Welsh tale that identifies the first curlew conservationist. St Beuno, was a 6th century abbot from Wales. Legend has it he was sailing off the coast when he dropped his prayer book in the sea. A curlew flew over and rescued it and took it to the shore to dry. The grateful St Beuno decreed that from then on, the bird be given special protection and that its nest must be difficult to find; which is indeed the case.
We hope that conservation organisations, government agencies, land-managers and nature enthusiasts from around the world will come together to support this remarkable but very threatened group of species. Whether it is publishing a press release, giving a talk, holding a curlew cake and coffee morning and/or going for a curlew walk.
We want to know what you will be doing for curlew on the 21st; so please share your stories and pictures on social media using the hashtag #WorldCurlewDay2018 Sadly, Eskimo curlew, a former widespread and abundant species in the Americas is probably already extinct while there has been no sighting of the Slender-billed Curlew for over 20 years.
The world has likely lost two species in the last century!
We need to do all that we can to ensure that we don’t lose anymore!"   World Curlew Day Facebook page here: https://www.facebook.com/WCDApril21/   Featured image: Curlew Numenius arquata, 13 December 2010, ©Ken Billington  
World Curlew Day – 21st April

The Wader Study Group joined BirdLife International to support the celebration of the World Curlew Day the 21st April! By Mary Colwell. "This time last year a ground-breaking assessment of the threats facing the Numeniini group was published that collated the views of over 100 wader experts from around the world made shocking reading. . It concluded that the main threat internationally is the loss and destruction of coastal estuaries and wetlands, which are under increasing pressure from

The Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network WHSRN reports results of the last aerial surveys in Tierra del Fuego. This winter a very low numbers of Calidris canutus rufa were recorded with only 9,840 ind when 13,127 ind. were recorded in January 2017. This is the second lowest record since the surveys began (after 2011 with 9,850 birds). Poor feeding condition in Delaware Bay recorded in May 2017 resulted in lower survival would be involved. Low water temperatures have delayed the ashore coming of Horseshoe Crabs to lay their eggs. Read more about results of the 2018 annual aerial survey on the WHSR website: https://www.whsrn.org/red-knot-low [caption id="attachment_10595" align="aligncenter" width="330"] The survey crew for Bahía Lomas flight. Left to right: Capt. Francisco Esquivel, Dr. Guy Morrison, Sra. Jocelyn Velasquez, Sr. Antonio Larrea. ©Guy Morrison for the WHSRN[/caption]     Featured image : Red knot rufa ©Breese Greg, USFWS    
Red Knot rufa wintering population crashes to a new low

The Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network WHSRN reports results of the last aerial surveys in Tierra del Fuego. This winter a very low numbers of Calidris canutus rufa were recorded with only 9,840 ind when 13,127 ind. were recorded in January 2017. This is the second lowest record since the surveys began (after 2011 with 9,850 birds). Poor feeding condition in Delaware Bay recorded in May 2017 resulted in lower survival would be involved. Low water temperatures have delayed the ashore

The British Ornithologists' Union is holding an open one-day meeting on the registration day, 20 August, of IOC2018, in Vancouver, Canada. Grasslands are found right across the planet, from tropical savannahs to alpine meadows, from coastline to mountain peak, forming key habitats for a wide range of species. Many of these habitats are under considerable threat from anthropogenic changes including land use change, urbanisation and climate change, which can impact on these important ecosystems and the birds which rely on them. The day has been planned specially to provide the large numbers of delegates arriving to register for IOC2018 on the Monday, with a series of presentations they can pop in and out of during this free open day. Read more about it on the original post on BOU website: Featured Image: Buff-breasted Sandpiper in Bolivia. ©Asociacion Armonia, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters.
“Ecology and conservation of the world’s grassland birds” | One-day meeting at IOC2018, in Vancouver, Canada

The British Ornithologists' Union is holding an open one-day meeting on the registration day, 20 August, of IOC2018, in Vancouver, Canada. Grasslands are found right across the planet, from tropical savannahs to alpine meadows, from coastline to mountain peak, forming key habitats for a wide range of species. Many of these habitats are under considerable threat from anthropogenic changes including land use change, urbanisation and climate change, which can impact on these important ecosystems

National Geographic magazine is publishing a series of bird-related feature articles in 2018, in honor of 'The Year of the Bird'. One in the March issue entitled "The Epic Journeys of Migratory Birds" is about bird migration and focuses on Bar-tailed Godwits, and features Jan van Gils, the Alaska USGS people, Jesse Conklin, and several other migration scientists that you will know! visit theThe Epic Journeys of Migratory Birds page on the National Geographic website:   Featured image: Bar-tailed godwits in the mud at the Heathcote and Avon Estuary in Christchurch, New Zealand. ©Jonathan Harrod, Minden Pictures for the National Geographic.
Bar-tailed Godwits in the March issue of the National Geographic Magazine

National Geographic magazine is publishing a series of bird-related feature articles in 2018, in honor of 'The Year of the Bird'. One in the March issue entitled "The Epic Journeys of Migratory Birds" is about bird migration and focuses on Bar-tailed Godwits, and features Jan van Gils, the Alaska USGS people, Jesse Conklin, and several other migration scientists that you will know! visit theThe Epic Journeys of Migratory Birds page on the National Geographic website:   Featured image:

If you’re lucky, when you are expecting a baby, you have access to pre-and post-natal care. In humans, this refers to physician or midwifery support before and after birth, but also to having the space and time to eat and rest well. Migratory shorebirds also need safe places to eat and rest pre- and post-breeding. In this issue of Wader Study, two articles describe stopover sites that provide this space en route to and away from breeding grounds. These articles also show what studying birds as they pass through these sites can tell us about other parts of the annual cycle, including breeding. Let’s begin with the post-breeding period. In both humans and birds, this is the time that seems to get the least attention. Many new parents find themselves on their own with their new baby in the days after birth, and similarly not much is known about the stopover sites birds use post-breeding. I was lucky to have had a child in the Netherlands where they have a wonderful thing called kramzorg1. For a week after I gave birth, a kraamverzorgster came to my home and helped with everything from teaching me to breastfeed to washing the dishes and making peanut butter sandwiches (which was all I wanted). It was revolutionary for me to discover this kind of care (and the need for it) around a topic I thought I knew well – having a baby. In much the same way Lyons and colleagues write about a well-studied species, but shine light on a period of the annual cycle that hasn’t been well studied – post-breeding stopover. They report on a mark-recapture/resight approach to study migration and stopover ecology in the Red Knot, Calidris canutus rufa, at Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in eastern Canada2. [caption id="attachment_10541" align="alignnone" width="960"] The post-breeding stopover site at Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, Quebec, Canada. Photo: Yves Aubry. Inset: A rufa Red Knot in non-breeding plumage. Photo: Patricia González.[/caption] The researchers’ first task was to collect the mark-resight data. They conducted surveys on four limestone islands (Niapiskau, Quarry, Grand-Île, and Nue de Mingan) at the western end of the Mingan Archipelago Reserve between 11 July and 3 September 2008. Between 9:00 in the morning and 3:00 in the afternoon they looked for knots, counted their numbers, and noted the proportion with uniquely engraved leg flags (marked birds). They detected five-hundred thirty-five (535) adults with leg flags. Most of these birds had received their flags as part of prior work at other locations along the flyway in Canada, the United States, Brazil, Argentina or Chile. Blood samples had been taken when the birds were captured and marked. These samples were used in molecular techniques to determine the sex of the birds. Then the 535 observations were converted into encounter histories, one for each bird, and analyzed mathematically using a Jolly-Seber (JS) model. The study had four goals: (1) use mathematical models and mark-resight data to describe when the birds arrive, how long they stay, and when they depart; (2) use data on when males, females and young arrive to infer how well the past breeding season went; (3) estimate how many birds use the sight, taking into account that birds pass through and that not all birds will be counted; (4) formalize the method for using quantitative mark-resight data to understand migration and stopover ecology in migratory birds. Using their field observations and the mathematical model, the authors estimated approximately 9,500 birds (8,355–10,710) used the stopover site at the Mingan Archipelago in 2008. The birds stayed on average about 11 days with a minimum-length-of-stay (MINLOS) about half that. The 535 marked birds seen during the field season represented approximately 64% of the total number of marked birds, or how many would have been seen if every marked bird could have been seen. Mathematically, the model that best explained the data with the fewest variables (the most parsimonious model) assumed that this resighting probability stayed constant. On the other hand, the probability of birds arriving, and how long they stayed, was not constant. Adult birds arrived in Mingan in two distinct waves. The first group arrived in mid-July and were mainly females who had likely nested successfully, and males and females whose nests failed. The second group arrived from August 8th to 11th and were mainly juvenile birds and males that nested successfully (and thus stayed longer to care for young). Though seemingly a simple description of timing, the authors point out that these results are important because the timing and type of birds arriving in Mingan tell us something about the success of the prior breeding season. In 2008, a large fraction of the stopover population arrived late in the season and most were juveniles and males. This suggests successful breeding. Being able to infer something about the breeding season from 1700 km away, makes the modelling described in this article a powerful tool, especially for species whose breeding sites are not easily accessible and whose nests are not easy to find. Sticking with Red Knots, but switching to subspecies C. c. roselaari, Buchanan and colleagues report on between-year variation in stopover timing at Grays Harbor, Washington, USA3. Here the focus is on spring migration and the pre-breeding period. In knots, more is known about pre- than post-breeding stopover sites (the famous Delaware Bay for C. c. rufa comes to mind); however, less is known about stopover sites for C. c. roselaari, whose flyway spans the Pacific side of North America4. Therefore, the authors took the opportunity to synthesize data in two previous surveys of Grays Harbor, conducted in 2009 and 2010, with data collected more recently in 2016. [caption id="attachment_10542" align="alignnone" width="960"] The post-breeding stopover site at Grays Harbor, Washington, USA. Photo: Joseph Buchanan. Inset: A roselaari Red Knot in breeding plumage. Photo: Tom Rowley.[/caption] Grays Harbor is a large estuary on the Pacific coast that is dominated by extensive flats at the confluence of seven rivers. Knots use areas in these mudflats that are too far from shore to be visible, particularly in the second half of the migration period, so researchers have to get creative to see the flocks. In this case they used airboats. From these boats, they estimated knot numbers by scanning the flocks and counting in increments of 20, 50 or 100 birds (depending on the size of the flock). The researchers found that knots passed through the area later in 2016 than in 2009 and 2010. Though the study was not designed to determine the cause of this variation in timing, the authors suspect that the later passage in 2016 was influenced by conditions in Mexico because knots appear to fly directly from wintering areas in Mexico to coastal Washington during spring4. The authors mention possible causes including variation in numbers of predators, such as Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus, or differences in the timing of food resources in Mexico. Whether human or bird, having a safe and resource-rich place to rest and eat is important for reproduction in both the pre- and post-natal periods. Both of these papers remind us of the importance of stopover sites used by migratory shorebirds en route to and from breeding areas, and both papers remind us that these sites can provide a treasure trove of information, even on a well-studied species.
  1. For those unfamiliar with the Dutch and Belgian kraamzorg system see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kraamzorg and also https://www.babble.com/parenting/the-incredible-post-birth-service-all-dutch-women-receive/
  2. Lyons, J. E., A. J. Baker, P. M. González, Y. Aubry, C. Buidin & Y. Rochepault. 2017. Migration ecology and stopover population size of Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at Mingan Archipelago after exiting the breeding grounds. Wader Study 124(3): 197-205.
  3. Buchanan, J. B., L. J. Salzer & V. Loverti. 2017. Between-year variation in the timing of peak passage of spring migrant Red Knots at Grays Harbor, Washington, USA Wader Study 124(3): 238-240.
  4. Carmona, R., N. Arce, V. Ayala, A. Hernández-Alvarez, J.B. Buchanan, L.J. Salzer, P.S. Tomkovich, J.A. Johnson, R.E. Gill, Jr., B. McCaffery & J. Lyons. 2013. Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) migration connectivity, abundance and nonbreeding distribution along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Wader Study Group Bulletin 120: 168-180.
PDF is available here.
Spotlight: Stopovers as “pre- and post-natal support” for migrants

If you’re lucky, when you are expecting a baby, you have access to pre-and post-natal care. In humans, this refers to physician or midwifery support before and after birth, but also to having the space and time to eat and rest well. Migratory shorebirds also need safe places to eat and rest pre- and post-breeding. In this issue of Wader Study, two articles describe stopover sites that provide this space en route to and away from breeding grounds. These articles also show what studying birds as

IWSG Small Projects Grants

Since 2016, the International Wader Study Group have annually been funding small projects through the newly established IWSG Small Projects Grants. The aim is to support shorebird studies that otherwise will not go ahead. This could be all sorts of projects related to waders (shorebirds): ecological and/or conservation research, pilot studies looking at biological aspects of a single or a few species, or counts of staging birds at unexplored sites. Or something completely different! Application is open for IWSG members who have a project idea that could be undertaken if supported with a small amount of money (currently 1000 pounds sterling per project). In the below link you can find a description of criteria and the application form. The IWSG Executive Committee has appointed an evaluation committee that will judge the applications, and decide which project will be awarded. Hurry up!, applications should be submitted by December 1th of each year, and a decision will be made before 1st of May. Application form IWSG Small Project Grants Call. [caption id="attachment_8912" align="aligncenter" width="330"] Last year, the 2016 IWSG Small Project Grants was attributed to Glenda D. Hevia to support his reaserach about the impact of human activities on Two-Banded Plovers (Charadrius falklandicus) breeding at beaches in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. You can follow the study at this ResearchGate Project page!: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Effects-of-human-activities-on-the-Two-banded-Plover-Charadrius-falklandicus-breeding-population-in-northern-Chubut-Patagonia-Argentina Photo: ©Darío Podestá.[/caption]
Only two days left to apply for the 2017 IWSG Small Projects Grants!

IWSG Small Projects Grants Since 2016, the International Wader Study Group have annually been funding small projects through the newly established IWSG Small Projects Grants. The aim is to support shorebird studies that otherwise will not go ahead. This could be all sorts of projects related to waders (shorebirds): ecological and/or conservation research, pilot studies looking at biological aspects of a single or a few species, or counts of staging birds at unexplored sites. Or something